RATTAN AND BAMBOO
National Forest Policy 1987 (Revised 1992) has underlined the need for non-timber forest resources sustainable management to be implement in order to ensure the interests of resource-based industries. Bamboo cultivation project is an effort by the Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia (FDPM) in introducing the results of non-timber resources with potential for commercialization.
Permanent Reserved Forests were managed according to the concept of sustainable forest management since the beginning of the 20th century. At present, with a shift in demand and requirements of the public for a variety of forest products and services, the concept of sustainable forest management has been expanded to cover other areas such as forest protection functions and non-wood production.
Bamboo belongs to the group of family Gramineae grasses. It grows in temperate regions in semi-tropical area which has the open and well drained environment. Bamboo can be classified into two types of growth which are monopodial growth (single stem), and sympodial (clump). Bamboos in Malaysia belong to sympodial growth.
Differences between Monopodial and Sympodial Bamboo
Monopodial Simpodial The growth in single The growth in clump Grow in a temperate climate Grow in a tropical climate
It is estimated there are 59 bamboo species in Peninsular Malaysia which are from seven genera of Bambusa, Dendrocalamus, Dinochloa, Racemobamboos, Schizostachyum, Thyrsostachys and Gigantochloa.
The amount and percentage of bamboo clumps in Peninsular Malaysia
Species Total clumps Clumps percentages (%) Semantan 163,010 0.28 Beti 25,020 0.04 Beting 911,956 1.58 Betong 252,187 0.44 Semeliang 391,850 0.68 Dinding 56,045,139 96.98 Total 57,789,162 100.00
(based on the National Forest Inventory-4)
Many products can be produced from bamboo such as chopsticks, furniture, musical instruments, toothpicks, picture frames, handicrafts, and ornamental. In spite that, Bamboo also being use for landscaping gardens for public recreation and private area.
Species Bamboo And Commercial Use In Peninsular Malaysia
Bil Picture Species Local Name Use 1 Bambusa blumeana Buluh duri Chopsticks, furniture, musical instruments, toothpicks. 2 Bambusa heterostachya Buluh galah/ tilan/ paring/ pengat Pole, picture frame, toothpicks, satay skewers. 3 Bambusa vulgaris Buluh minyak/ aao/ aro/pan/gading Ornamental, toothpicks, satay skewers, chopstick. 4 Dendrocalamus asper Buluh beting/pering Bamboo sprout 5 Gigantochloa levis Buluh betong/bisa Bamboo sprout 6 Gigantochloa ligulata Buluh Tumpat
Picture frame, bamboo sprout. 7 Gigantochloa scortechinii Buluh semantan/rayah/
Handicrafts. 8 Gigantochloa wrayi Buluh beti/raga Handicrafts, satay skewers, toothpicks. 9 Schizostachyum brachycladum Buluh lemang/nipis/ padi/pelang/urat/rusa Handicrafts, ornamental, toothpicks. 10 Shizostachyum
Buluh dinding/ nipis/ kasap/telor Handicrafts, satay skewers, toothpicks. 11 Bambusa vulgaris var.striata Buluh gading Ornamental. 12 Schizostachyum
Picture frames, handicrafts.
Rattan belongs to the family of Palmae and classified in the largest group of the subfamily Calamoideae. There are 13 genera of rattan in the world. They are Calamus, Calospatha, Ceratolobus, Daemonorops, Eremospatha, Korthalsia, Laccosperma, Myrialepis, Oncocalamus, Plectocomia, Plectocomiopsis, Pogonotium and Retispatha.
In Peninsular Malaysia, there are about 107 species of rattan comprising 8 genera where are only 20 species being identified to have market value. Among them are Calamus Manan, C. ornatus, C. turnidus, C. scipionium, and C. Caesius.
Generally, rattan grows in moist areas and will be decreased in number when an area is always experiencing change in humidity. In Peninsular Malaysia, rattan can be found from the coast to the mountains. However, the most suitable habitat for rattans is in dipterocarp forest.
Based on the National Forest Inventory 4 (NFI-4), there were 2,350,147,775 clumps /rattan cane which have been surveyed and the result showed that Calamus manan has the highest percentage compared to the other types of rattans. The fraction is as table 1.
Rattan Total of Clumps / Rattan Cane* Percentages of Clumps / Rattan Cane* (%) Total of Clumps / Rattan Cane*
Manau* 21,540,363 1 4 Manau Tikus* 14,064,298 1 2 Dok 16,294,060 1 3 Dahan 50,502,982 1 9 Sega 20,701,582 1 4 Semambu 4,546,253 1 1 Others 2,222,498,237 94 388 Total of Clumps / Rattan Cane* 2,350,147,775 100
Table 1: Fraction of clump / rattan cane by type
The most economic contribution from rattans is through processing furniture and handicrafts. Among the furniture are chairs, tables, beds, and utensils. The most important species in rattan-based industries in Peninsular Malaysia are Calamus manan and Calamus caesius.
Species Local name Use Calamus manau Rotan manau Furniture Calamus scipionum Rotan semambu Furniture Calamus tumidus Rotan manau tikus Furniture Calamus ornatus Rotan dok Furniture Calamus caesius Rotan sega Furniture Calamus javensis Rotan lilin Bonding materials Calamus laevigatus Rotan tunggal Furniture and handicrafts Calamus axillaries Rotan sega air Furniture and handicrafts Calamus speciosissimus Rotan sega badak Furniture and handicrafts Picture 1 & 2 : Calamus manan at Compartment 7/15, Bukit Kesing Forest Reserve, Terengganu Picture 3 & 4 : Pictures shows the seeds of Calamus manan in compartment 26, Behrang Forest Reserve, Perak
Table 2: Commercial rattan species and their uses