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National Forest Policy 1987 (Revised 1992) has underlined the need for non-timber forest resources sustainable management to be implement in order to ensure the interests of resource-based industries. Bamboo cultivation project is an effort by the Forestry Department Peninsular Malaysia (FDPM) in introducing the results of non-timber resources with potential for commercialization.

Permanent Reserved Forests were managed according to the concept of sustainable forest management since the beginning of the 20th century. At present, with a shift in demand and requirements of the public for a variety of forest products and services, the concept of sustainable forest management has been expanded to cover other areas such as forest protection functions and non-wood production.

  • Bamboo belongs to the group of family Gramineae grasses. It grows in temperate regions in semi-tropical area which has the open and well drained environment. Bamboo can be classified into two types of growth which are monopodial growth (single stem), and sympodial (clump). Bamboos in Malaysia belong to sympodial growth.

    Differences between Monopodial and Sympodial Bamboo

    Monopodial Simpodial
    The growth in single The growth in clump
    Grow in a temperate climate Grow in a tropical climate

    It is estimated there are 59 bamboo species in Peninsular Malaysia which are from seven genera of Bambusa, Dendrocalamus, Dinochloa, Racemobamboos, Schizostachyum, Thyrsostachys and Gigantochloa.

    The amount and percentage of bamboo clumps in Peninsular Malaysia

    Species Total clumps Clumps percentages (%)
    Semantan 163,010 0.28
    Beti 25,020 0.04
    Beting 911,956 1.58
    Betong 252,187 0.44
    Semeliang 391,850 0.68
    Dinding 56,045,139 96.98
    Total 57,789,162 100.00

    (based on the National Forest Inventory-4)

    Many products can be produced from bamboo such as chopsticks, furniture, musical instruments, toothpicks, picture frames, handicrafts, and ornamental. In spite that, Bamboo also being use for landscaping gardens for public recreation and private area.

    Species Bamboo And Commercial Use In Peninsular Malaysia

    Bil Picture Species Local Name Use
    1 buluh duri Bambusa blumeana Buluh duri Chopsticks, furniture, musical instruments, toothpicks.
    2 buluh gajah Bambusa heterostachya Buluh galah/ tilan/ paring/ pengat Pole, picture frame, toothpicks, satay skewers.
    3 buluh minyak Bambusa vulgaris Buluh minyak/ aao/ aro/pan/gading Ornamental, toothpicks, satay skewers, chopstick.
    4 buluh beting Dendrocalamus asper Buluh beting/pering Bamboo sprout
    5 buluh betong Gigantochloa levis Buluh betong/bisa Bamboo sprout
    6 buluh tumpat Gigantochloa ligulata Buluh Tumpat
    Picture frame, bamboo sprout.
    7 buluh semantan Gigantochloa scortechinii Buluh semantan/rayah/
    8 buluh beti Gigantochloa wrayi Buluh beti/raga Handicrafts, satay skewers, toothpicks.
    9 buluh lemang Schizostachyum brachycladum Buluh lemang/nipis/ padi/pelang/urat/rusa Handicrafts, ornamental, toothpicks.
    10 buluh kasap Shizostachyum
    Buluh dinding/ nipis/ kasap/telor Handicrafts, satay skewers, toothpicks.
    11   Bambusa vulgaris var.striata Buluh gading Ornamental.
    12   Schizostachyum
    Buluh semeliang/
    Picture frames, handicrafts.
  • Rattan belongs to the family of Palmae and classified in the largest group of the subfamily Calamoideae. There are 13 genera of rattan in the world. They are Calamus, Calospatha, Ceratolobus, Daemonorops, Eremospatha, Korthalsia, Laccosperma, Myrialepis, Oncocalamus, Plectocomia, Plectocomiopsis, Pogonotium and Retispatha.

    In Peninsular Malaysia, there are about 107 species of rattan comprising 8 genera where are only 20 species being identified to have market value. Among them are Calamus Manan, C. ornatus, C. turnidus, C. scipionium, and C. Caesius.

    Generally, rattan grows in moist areas and will be decreased in number when an area is always experiencing change in humidity. In Peninsular Malaysia, rattan can be found from the coast to the mountains. However, the most suitable habitat for rattans is in dipterocarp forest.

    Based on the National Forest Inventory 4 (NFI-4), there were 2,350,147,775 clumps /rattan cane which have been surveyed and the result showed that Calamus manan has the highest percentage compared to the other types of rattans. The fraction is as table 1.

    Rattan Total of Clumps / Rattan Cane* Percentages of Clumps / Rattan Cane* (%) Total of Clumps / Rattan Cane*
    per Ha
    Manau* 21,540,363 1 4
    Manau Tikus* 14,064,298 1 2
    Dok 16,294,060 1 3
    Dahan 50,502,982 1 9
    Sega 20,701,582 1 4
    Semambu 4,546,253 1 1
    Others 2,222,498,237 94 388
    Total of Clumps / Rattan Cane* 2,350,147,775 100  

    Table 1: Fraction of clump / rattan cane by type

    The most economic contribution from rattans is through processing furniture and handicrafts. Among the furniture are chairs, tables, beds, and utensils. The most important species in rattan-based industries in Peninsular Malaysia are Calamus manan and Calamus caesius.

    Species Local name Use
    Calamus manau Rotan manau Furniture
    Calamus scipionum Rotan semambu Furniture
    Calamus tumidus Rotan manau tikus Furniture
    Calamus ornatus Rotan dok Furniture
    Calamus caesius Rotan sega Furniture
    Calamus javensis Rotan lilin Bonding materials
    Calamus laevigatus Rotan tunggal Furniture and handicrafts
    Calamus axillaries Rotan sega air Furniture and handicrafts
    Calamus speciosissimus Rotan sega badak Furniture and handicrafts


    Picture 1 & 2 : Calamus manan at Compartment 7/15, Bukit Kesing Forest Reserve, Terengganu
    Picture 3 & 4 : Pictures shows the seeds of Calamus manan in compartment 26, Behrang Forest Reserve, Perak

    Table 2: Commercial rattan species and their uses

Contact Us

Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia Headquarters,
Jalan Sultan Salahuddin,
50660 Kuala Lumpur
Phone. No: 603-26164488
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