Balau (Shorea sp.) timber is a dipterocarp species, belong to the hardwood timber weight and has high durability. Its wood is very suitable in the construction and furniture manufacturing. These trees produce resin or resin, is traditionally used in the manufacture of resin torch and now used in the manufacture of paints and varnishes. It is also used as a stabilizer for the production of emulsions and paints and printing inks. Widely distributed around Sumatra, Thailand and Peninsular Malaysia, especially on the East Coast. The tree is usually grows in the valley and a little swampy and along riverbanks.
Chengal tree is a popular hardwood tree. The natural distribution of this tree is restricted to Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Southern Thailand. Chengal is found in mixed dipterocarp lowland forests, especially on undulating lands, in swampy areas and sometimes in dry areas of swamp forests. Chengal is a durable hardwood timber and has a density of between 915 to 980 kilograms per cubic meter is normally used in heavy construction work, especially boats construction, pillars and bridges without the need to preserve because it is resistant from termites attacks. In Malaysia, a chengal tree grows in lowland areas less than 1000 meters elevation, especially in areas with good water drainage. Normally chengal tree grows well in the areas that receive rainfall more than 2000 millimetres per year and no drought.
Vernacular names for the heavy timbers of Hopea spp. (Dipterocarpaceae) applied include giam (Peninsular Malaysia) with various epithets, selangan (Sabah and Sarawak). Major species include H. ferrea, H. helferi, H. nutans, H. pentanervia and H. semicuneata. The sapwood is yellow and is poorly defined from the heartwood, which is yellow with a greenish tinge when fresh and turns deep red-brown on exposure. Also known as Koki:r (Cambodia); Balau (Indonesia); Hin, Mai khaen fay and Mai la en (Laos); Thingyan (Myanmar); Heavy hopea (Papua New Guinea); Saplungan and Yakal (Philippines); Krabok-krang, Lao Tao, Takian Hin, Takian-Nu and Takian-rak (Thailand); and Sao xanh (Vietnam).
Dryobalanops aromatica, commonly known as Kapur, is a species of plant in the Dipterocarpaceae family. The species name aromatica is derived from Latin (aromaticus = spice-like) and refers to the smell of the dammar (resin). This species was one of the main sources of camphor and attracted early Arab traders to Borneo, at that time worth more than gold, and used for incense and perfumes. It is found in Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. It is a large emergent tree, up to 65 m or even 75 m tall, found in mixed dipterocarp forests on deep humic yellow sandy soils. It is a heavy hardwood sold under the trade names of Kapur.
Has an orangish-brown color when freshly cut, which ages to a darker reddish-brown. Color between boards can be highly variable. There are also small yellow mineral deposits found throughout the wood, making it easier to separate from other lookalikes. These yellow deposits are water-soluble and can cause staining.