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Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia Headquarters,
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Kapur (Dryobalanops aromatica)

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Dryobalanops aromatica, commonly known as Kapur, is a species of plant in the Dipterocarpaceae family. The species name aromatica is derived from Latin (aromaticus = spice-like) and refers to the smell of the dammar (resin). This species was one of the main sources of camphor and attracted early Arab traders to Borneo, at that time worth more than gold, and used for incense and perfumes. It is found in Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo. It is a large emergent tree, up to 65 m or even 75 m tall, found in mixed dipterocarp forests on deep humic yellow sandy soils. It is a heavy hardwood sold under the trade names of Kapur.

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Giam (Hopea)



Vernacular names for the heavy timbers of Hopea spp. (Dipterocarpaceae) applied include giam (Peninsular Malaysia) with various epithets, selangan (Sabah and Sarawak). Major species include H. ferrea, H. helferi, H. nutans, H. pentanervia and H. semicuneata. The sapwood is yellow and is poorly defined from the heartwood, which is yellow with a greenish tinge when fresh and turns deep red-brown on exposure. Also known as Koki:r (Cambodia); Balau (Indonesia); Hin, Mai khaen fay and Mai la en (Laos); Thingyan (Myanmar); Heavy hopea (Papua New Guinea); Saplungan and Yakal (Philippines); Krabok-krang, Lao Tao, Takian Hin, Takian-Nu and Takian-rak (Thailand); and Sao xanh (Vietnam).

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Chengal (Neobalanocarpus heimii)

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Chengal tree is a popular hardwood tree. The natural distribution of this tree is restricted to Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore and Southern Thailand. Chengal is found in mixed dipterocarp lowland forests, especially on undulating lands, in swampy areas and sometimes in dry areas of swamp forests. Chengal is a durable hardwood timber and has a density of between 915 to 980 kilograms per cubic meter is normally used in heavy construction work, especially boats construction, pillars and bridges without the need to preserve because it is resistant from termites attacks. In Malaysia, a chengal tree grows in lowland areas less than 1000 meters elevation, especially in areas with good water drainage. Normally chengal tree grows well in the areas that receive rainfall more than 2000 millimetres per year and no drought.

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Balau (Shorea sp.)



Pokok Balau (Shorea sp.) merupakan spesies dipterokarpa tergolong dalam kumpulan kayu keras berat dan mempunyai ketahanan yang tinggi. Kayunya amat sesuai digunakan di dalam pembuatan pembinaan dan pembuatan perabot. Spesies ini menghasilkan resin atau damar yang secara tradisinya, resin ini digunakan dalam pembuatan obor dan sekarang digunakan dalam industri pembuatan cat dan varnish. Ia juga digunakan sebagai bahan emulsi dan penstabil untuk pengeluaran cat dan dakwat percetakan. Pokok Balau mempunyai taburan yang meluas di sekitar Sumatra, Thailand dan Semenanjung Malaysia. Spesies ini biasanya tumbuh dengan subur di kawasan lembah dan berbukit.

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Merbau (Intsia spp.)



Has an orangish-brown color when freshly cut, which ages to a darker reddish-brown. Color between boards can be highly variable. There are also small yellow mineral deposits found throughout the wood, making it easier to separate from other lookalikes. These yellow deposits are water-soluble and can cause staining.

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